From Prokaryotes to Eukaryotes Cells

Cells
https://youtu.be/r4gMKVvPT1I If you look at the supposed transition from simple bacterial life to modern life, a key step early on in that process is going to be the transition from what's called prokaryotic life - simple bacterial life - to eukaryotic life. All complex life has a cell type that's called eukaryotic cell type where the DNA is packaged in a nucleus, the cells are larger, you have all kinds of organelles, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum. All of these structures that don't exist at all in the bacterial world, they exist everywhere else. Complex life has these structures. Fundamentally different ways of doing cellular life separates the bacterial world from the eukaryotic world. So the question is: How did you get from that simpler world to the more complex…
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Are building blocks of a cell easy to build?

Are building blocks of a cell easy to build?

Cells
https://youtu.be/wcxZKPVCBMg Dave: Any biomolecule is easy to synthesize. Jim knows this. He's a synthetic chemist. What he probably means is that we haven't seen these bio-macromolecules form spontaneously outside of a biological system. But that's not what he says. Jim:  There is this perception that biomolecules are easy to synthesize. They're not easy to synthesize as I'm showing but they would be really hard to synthesize if you had to build the building blocks of the building blocks. What if you couldn't buy glucose and you had to make it? What if you had to make glucose? That's really hard to do, especially with pre-biotic chemicals. Dave: Jim is constantly talking about how we don't know how to make the four classes of biomolecules which are nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates…
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Haven’t scientists been able to successfully build a cell?

Cells
https://youtu.be/xeFW2PgU2aU Try to build a cell even hypothetically. Assemble a dream team of all your best professors and you say “Can you make a living cell if you were to give them the chemicals in homochiro form and the informational code?” So say I'll give you all the chemicals. Can you build a cell. No. I’'ll give you the informational code. I'll give you DNA in any order that you want. I'll give you the RNA in any order that you want. I'll even give you the enzymes all assembled. I'll give you the lipids all in homochiral form, whatever lipids you want. I'll give you all the proteins, all the ionophores, all the carbohydrates in whatever form you want. Here they are all in separate bottles in your modern…
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From proteins to simple cells

Cells
It is already overwhelming odds that an average-sized protein that is necessary for life could have occurred spontaneously. However, proteins alone is not life. The simplest living cell requires thousands of proteins in order to function. If we take this into consideration, the odds of a simple cell forming spontaneously is even more staggering. https://youtu.be/J4y1XzCrk9s The case for chemical evolution only weakens when we consider that long chains of specific amino acids all in exactly the right position are required to form the proteins of life. Even worse, amino acids do not naturally link up to form proteins but rather tend to break down. Now proteins can be two or three thousand amino acids long. Very long, complex chemicals and they're very much like a computer program. Every amino acid…
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